Glossary

With over 300 terms, our dictionary is designed to help you better understand the terms that you will come across daily while running your business or dealing with your accountant and your bank.

A

Accelerated payment

Accelerated payment occurs when a borrower speeds up...

Accounting Standards for Private Enterprises (ASPE)

The Accounting Standards for Private Enterprises (ASPE) are accounting...

Accounts payable

Accounts payable refers to the money a company owes its suppliers...

Accounts receivable

Accounts receivable refers to the money a company’s customers owe for goods...

Accrual cash accounting

Accrual- and cash-based accounting are two different methods that...

Accrued expenses

Accrued expenses are those incurred for which...

Acid-test ratio

The acid-test ratio compares a company’s “quick assets”...

Administration expenses

Administration expenses are the costs of paying wages...

Advisory board

An advisory board is a group of people chosen to give expert...

Amortization expenses

Amortization expenses account for the cost of long-term assets...

Amortization period

The amortization period is the total length of time it takes a company...

Angel investor

An angel investor is a wealthy person who invests his or her own money...

Asset-backed securities

When investors invest in companies, they are issued a “security”...

Asset-based lending

Asset-based lending occurs when a loan is granted primarily...

Assets

The term “assets” refers to everything a company owns. They are the economic resources...

Audited, accountant-reviewed and notice-to-reader financial statements

Audited, accountant-reviewed and notice-to-reader are three types...

Average collection period (receivables turnover)

The average collection period is the average number of days...

B

Balance sheet

A balance sheet summarizes a company's assets, liabilities and...

Balloon payment loan

With a balloon payment loan, the final payment includes...

Bank debt

Bank debt is a business takes on by borrowing money from its bank...

Bank operating loan

A bank operating loan (also called a line of credit) is a short-term, flexible loan that a business...

Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal proceeding that occurs when the owner... 

Barriers to trade

A barrier to trade is anything that makes it harder to trade...

Blended payment

Blended payments are a way of repaying a loan that sets...

Board of directors

 board of directors is a group of people who represent the...

Bonded warehouse

A bonded warehouse is a warehouse operated by a private company in a foreign country...

Borrower

A borrower is a person or business that receives money...

Break-even point

The break-even point is achieved when a company’s ...

Bridge capital

Bridge capital is temporary funding that helps a business ...

Business accelerator

A business accelerator is a program that gives developing...

Business incubator

A business incubator is a program that gives very early...

Business plan

A business plan is a document that outlines a company’s...

C

Canada-Europe Trade Agreement (CETA)

The Canada-Europe Trade Agreement (CETA) is Canada’s...

Capital cost allowance (CCA)

Capital cost allowance (CCA) is the amount of amortization...

Capital structure

Capital structure is the mix of debt and equity on a company’s...

Cash

Cash is the amount of actual money a business has at its...

Cash flow

Cash flow measures how much cash a company takes...

Collateral

Collateral refers to the different kinds of assets that borrowers...

Commercial letter of credit

A commercial letter of credit (CLC) is a bank-issued document...

Commercial mortgage

A commercial mortgage is a loan given to a...

Commodities

A commodity is any good or service that is interchangeable...

Common shares

Common shares are issued to business owners and other...

Competitive advantage

A competitive advantage is anything that gives a company...

Competitive forces

Competitive forces are the factors and variables that threaten a company’s profitability...

Content Marketing

Content marketing is an online marketing strategy that...

Content syndication

With content syndication, companies post or promote their own blogs, articles, videos...

Contract employment

Contract employment involves hiring a person for a specific...

Contributed surplus

Contributed surplus is the accounting term used whenever...

Controlling interest

A shareholder has controlling interest in a business when...

Conversion rate

Conversion rate is the percentage of visitors to a company’s...

Convertible debt

With convertible debt, a business borrows money from...

Copyright

In general, copyright means the sole right to produce or reproduce a work...

Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the practice of ensuring a corporation...

Corporate social responsibility

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a company’s commitment...

Corporation

A corporation is a legally established business that can...

Cost advantage

A company has a cost advantage when it can produce a...

Cost of capital

A company’s cost of capital is the cost of all its debt (borrowed money) plus the cost...

Cost of goods sold (COGS)

The cost of goods sold (COGS) is the sum of all direct costs associated with manufacturing a product...

Cost of sales (COS)

Cost of sales (COS) indicates how much a retail or wholesale business spends on the products it...

Covenants

Covenants are promises that borrowers make to lenders as part of their loan agreements...

Cover letter

The cover letter introduces a company’s financial statements...

Credit card debt

Credit card debt is money a company owes for purchases made by credit card...

Credit insurance

Credit insurance guarantees a lender will be repaid if a borrower...

Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding is a way for companies to raise money by...

Currency hedging

Currency hedging helps businesses protect themselves...

Current assets

Current assets (also called short-term assets) are assets a business uses, replaces…

Current liabilities (short-term liabilities)

Current liabilities (also called short-term liabilities) are debts...

Current portion of long-term debt (CPLTD)

The current portion of long-term debt (CPLTD) is the amount...

Current ratio

Current ratio compares a company’s current assets to its current liabilities...

Customs

Customs authorities (agencies) control the flow of goods...

Customs Union

A customs union is an agreement between two or more...

D

Debenture

A debenture is a marketable security (a type of investment)...

Debt service coverage ratio

The debt service coverage ratio measures a company’s...

Debt-to-equity ratio

The debt-to-equity ratio shows how much of a company...

Debt-to-total assets ratio (debt-to-total capital ratio)

The debt-to-total-assets ratio shows how much of a business...

Default

In the relationship between a borrower and a lender, default means one or more of the...

Demand loan

A demand loan is a loan that a lender can require to be...

Developed country

A developed country—also called an industrialized country...

Developing country

A developing country—also called a less developed country...

Differentiation

Differentiation occurs when a company, product or service...

Direct costs

Direct costs are the expenses a business incurs directly to make a product or service, or buy a…

Direct marketing

Direct marketing is any marketing activity that communicates directly with a potential customer...

Diversification

Diversification is a strategy companies and investors use to ensure they are not dependent on a single...

Dividend payout ratio

The dividend payout ratio shows how much of a company’s earnings after tax (EAT) are paid to...

Dividends

Companies pay dividends to shareholders in return for using their capital. Dividends are paid out of...

Duty

A duty is an import fee (tariff) charged on goods entering a country, as specified in the country's...

E

Early-stage investing

Early-stage investing funds the first three stages of a company’s development. It is divided into...

Earnings after tax (EAT)

Earnings after tax (EAT) is the measure of a company’s net profitability. It is calculated by subtracting...

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) indicate how effectively a company generates earnings...

Earnings before tax (EBT)

Earnings before tax (EBT) measures a company’s profitability before income taxes are factored...

Earnings per common share

Earnings per common share (EPS) is a measure of profitability that shows how much of a...

EBITDA

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) is the primary calculation...

E-commerce

E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the process of buying, selling or exchanging products and...

Economic environment

The term economic environment refers to all the external economic factors that influence buying...

Economic union

An economic union is an agreement between two or more nations to allow goods, services, money...

Efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility

The terms “efficiency,” “effectiveness” and “flexibility” are used to describe the way a company operates...

Emerging markets

An emerging market (sometimes also called a developing economy) is a country with a...

Employee buyout

An employee buyout occurs when employees purchase the company they work for. To do so, they...

Employee coaching

Employee coaching for performance happens when a manager helps an employee achieve his or...

Enterprise resource planning software

Companies use enterprise resource planning (ERP) software to manage the various aspects of their...

Equipment

Equipment is a long-term asset that benefits a business over several years of use. Computers, trucks...

Equity dilution

Further, their share of the company’s profits is also diluted. This happens because the total number...

Equity financing

When companies sell shares to investors to raise capital, it is called equity financing. The benefit of...

Exchange rate

An exchange rate indicates how much it costs to buy units of one currency using a different currency...

Exit

An exit occurs when an investor sells part or all of his or her ownership. In a healthy or growing...

Export plan

An export plan outlines how a company will establish or grow its business internationally, and...

Exports / Exporting

Selling goods and services to buyers in another country is called exporting. To ensure they follow...

F

Financial statements

Financial statements are a set of documents showing a company’s current financial status...

Fiscal year end

The fiscal year end is the date on which a company finishes a 12-month business cycle. Most companies’...

Fixed costs

Fixed costs are costs that do not change when sales or production volumes increase or decrease...

Fixed-rate (term) loan

In a fixed-rate loan (also called a term loan), the interest rate stays the same for the loan’s entire term...

Floating-rate loan

In a floating-rate loan (also called a variable-rate loan), the interest rate varies over the term of the loan...

Foreign market

Foreign markets are any markets outside of a company’s own country.Selling in foreign markets...

Foreign sales agent

A foreign sales agent represents a business in a market outside of its home country (i.e., a foreign market)...

Franchise

With a franchise, a company licences its processes, intellectual property (e.g., trademarks), trade...

Free Trade Agreement (FTA)

A free trade agreement (FTA) is a treaty between two or more countries to facilitate trade and eliminate...

Free trade zone

A free trade zone is any location where goods can be shipped, handled, manufactured, reconfigured...

G

General expenses

General expenses are the costs a business incurs as part of its daily operations, separate from...

General partnership

A general partnership is a business established by two or more owners. It is one of three ways of...

Global business

A global business is a company that operates facilities (such as factories and distribution centres)...

Global strategy

A global strategy is a plan to help a company grow from an international business (which sells...

Global supply chain

A global supply chain covers all the steps involved in manufacturing and delivering a product or service...

Global value chain

Global value chain refers to five interrelated activities, taking place in more than one country, that...

Globalization

Globalization is a process of increasing social and economic integration among countries around...

Goodwill

Goodwill refers to the value a company gets from its brand, customer base and reputation associated...

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a broad measure of a country’s economic activity based on the...

Gross margin

Gross margin is the amount of money a company has left after subtracting all direct costs of producing...

Gross profit margin ratio

The gross profit margin ratio shows the percentage of sales revenue a company keeps after it covers...

Guerrilla marketing

Guerrilla marketing refers to unconventional approaches to promote products or...

H

Hedging

Companies use hedging to minimize the impact of potentially negative financial events on their...

HS Code

HS codes are developed by the World Customs Organization (WCO). They identify product...

I

Import

An import is a good, product or service brought into a country from another country. The person...

Inbound marketing

Inbound marketing is a marketing strategy designed to generate interest in a company’s products or...

Income statement

An income statement (also called a profit-and-loss statement) shows the profitability of a business...

Income tax

Governments collect income tax on the profit earned by businesses in their territory — whether those...

Indirect costs

Indirect costs are the costs of running a business and going to market with a product or...

Industrial design

Industrial designs are about how things look. Industrial design registrations protect a new or original...

Information technology

Information technology (IT) refers to a company’s networks, hardware, software and data storage...

Initial public offering (IPO)

An initial public offering (IPO) refers to the first time a company sells shares publicly. It is a form of...

Insolvent

A business is insolvent when it has both a negative debt service coverage ratio...

Intellectual property (IP)

Intellectual property (IP) is anything created by human minds: Inventions, literary and artistic works...

Interest

Interest is the fee a business pays a lender (creditor) to borrow money. Interest payments are usually...

Interest-only loan

With an interest-only loan, the borrower’s regular payments include only interest, not the principal...

International business

An international business is one that sells products or services in other countries but operates facilities...

International certification standards

An international certification standard outlines the requirements and specifications a product,...

International commercial terms

International commercial terms (Incoterms) are rules and standards for commercial transactions...

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are the rules, standards and procedures accountants...

International market

An international market is any market outside a company’s home country—which is its...

International trade

International trade is the exchange of goods or services between countries. Free trade agreements...

International trade show

An international trade show is an event where companies from different countries showcase and...

Inventory

A company’s inventory includes any finished units of product it is holding for sale, any unfinished units...

Inventory management

Inventory management is the practice companies follow to ensure they have enough raw material...

Inventory turnover (number of days in inventory)

Inventory turnover shows how many times per year a company converts its inventory into sales...

Investments

A company’s balance sheet may show funds it has invested in other companies. Investments appear...

J

Joint venture

In a joint venture, two or more companies join together to collaborate on a particular project. Through...

K

Kaizen

The Japanese word “kaizen” means “continuous improvement” and refers to a structured...

Kanban

Kanban is a tool and scheduling system for managing interdependent manufacturing processes...

Key success factors

Key success factors (also known as competitive emphasis or strategic posture) state the important...

L

Labour expenses

While all companies pay for labour (in the form of the wages they pay to people who work for them)...

Land and buildings

Land and buildings are tangible, long-term assets companies use and benefit from over time. They...

Late-stage investing

Late-stage investing supports companies that have moved beyond the start-up phase of development...

Lean manufacturing

Lean manufacturing is a systematized approach to production that helps companies manufacture the...

Lender

Lean manufacturing is a systematized approach to production that helps companies manufacture the...

Lending agreement

A lending agreement (loan agreement) is a formal contract between a lender and a borrower...

Letter of guarantee

A letter of guarantee is a document issued by your bank that ensures your supplier gets paid for the...

Leverage

Leverage is the amount of debt a company has in its mix of debt and equity (its  capital structure)...

Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A leveraged buyout (LBO) occurs when the buyer of a company takes on a significant amount of...

Liabilities

Liabilities are the legal debts a company owes to third-party creditors...

Limited partnership

A limited partnership is a form of general partnership  which is one of three ways of organizing a...

Liquidity

Liquidity is a company’s ability to raise cash when it needs it. There are two major determinants of...

Loan

A loan is a sum of money borrowed by a company with the agreement to pay the lender back within...

Loan acceptance

Loan acceptance occurs when a borrower accepts the terms and conditions of a loan in writing. The...

Loan authorization

Loan authorization occurs when a lending institution completes its “due diligence” (comprehensive...

Loan maturity date

Loan maturity date refers to the date on which a borrower’s final loan payment is due. Once that...

Loan-to-value ratio

The loan-to-value ratio (LTV) determines the maximum amount of a secured loan based on the market...

Local culture

Local culture is the set of behaviours, beliefs and customs that exist in a country—everything from...

Logistics

Logistics is the practice of coordinating processes and managing materials to create products or...

Long-term assets (fixed assets)

Long-term assets (also called fixed or capital assets are those a business can expect to use, replace...

Long-term liabilities (long-term debts)

Long-term liabilities, also called long-term debts, are debts a company owes third-party creditors that...

M

Managerial preferences

Managerial preferences are the likes, dislikes, beliefs and perceptions that influence a manager’s...

Market capitalization

Market capitalization refers to the total value of a publicly traded company’s outstanding common...

Market entry

Market entry includes all the activities involved in bringing a product or service to a new market...

Market entry strategy

A market entry strategy is a company’s plan for delivering goods or services to a new market (a...

Market research

Market research is information about customers, competitors and emerging trends that helps...

Marketing mix

A company’s marketing mix is the combination of products...

Marketing plan

A company’s marketing plan outlines its intended marketing and advertising activities for a...

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A)

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) combine two business entities into one. A merger occurs...

Mezzanine financing

Mezzanine financing is a business loan that offers repayment terms adapted to a company’s cash...

Most favoured nation

The most favoured nation (MFN) principle is based on the idea that countries should treat all...

Multinational corporation

A multinational corporation is a company that does business in a select few countries around the...

N

National Treatment

National treatment is a principle that says countries should treat imported goods, services and...

Net profit margin ratio

The net profit margin ratio shows the percentage of sales revenue a company keeps after covering...

Net revenue

Net revenue is the revenue a company earns in a given period after any purchaser purchase discounts...

Notes payable

Notes payable are long-term liabilities that indicate the money a company owes its financiers...

Notes to financial statements

Notes to the financial statements disclose the detailed assumptions made by accountants when...

O

Offer advantage

A company has an offer advantage when its product or service stands out from the competition...

One-time expenses/revenues

One-time expenses or revenues arise from non-operating activities, that is, those...

Online marketing

Online marketing (also called Internet marketing or web marketing) is marketing and advertising...

Operating activities/non-operating activities

Operating activities are all the things a company does to bring its products and services to market...

Operating expenses (selling, general & administrative expenses)

Operating expenses—also called selling, general and administrative expenses...

Operations

Operations refers to all the tasks a company performs to turn raw materials...

Organizational behaviour

Organizational behaviour refers to the ways people communicate and work together to accomplish...

Organizational culture

Organizational culture is generally understood as all of a company’s beliefs, values and attitudes...

Overhead

Overhead is a general term describing indirect costs—i.e., all costs not directly related to manufacturing... 

P

Par value of shares

Par value is the value of a single common share as set by a corporation’s charter. It is not typically...

Pari-passu

Pari-passu—Latin for “equal footing”—is a financing arrangement that gives multiple lenders...

Patents

Patent protection applies in the country or region that issues the patent...

Patient capital

Patient capital is money a small or medium-sized private business raises. Its name refers to...

Pay per click

With pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, companies are charged for online ad space only when users...

Payables turnover

Payables turnover shows how many times a year a company pays its suppliers...

Performance appraisal

Performance appraisal is a process for evaluating and documenting how well an employee is... 

Performance management

Performance management is a process of continuing, in-person dialogue between an employee and...

Personal loan

A personal loan (also known as a consumer loan) describes any situation in which an individual...

Personal objectives

Personal objectives refer to the job-specific goals of each individual employee. They are important...

Preferred shares

Preferred shares are issued to business owners and other investors as proof of the money they...

Pre-paid expenses

Pre-paid expenses are intangible assets a company has already paid for and expects to benefit...

Price-earnings ratio (P/E multiple)

he price-earnings ratio (also called PE multiple or P/E) helps shareholders understand what their...

Pricing decisions

Pricing decisions are the choices businesses make when setting price...

Prime interest rate

The prime interest rate, also known as the “prime rate,” is the interest rate commercial banks charge their...

Principal

Principal is the amount of money a company borrows when it takes a loan. This amount is recorded...

Principal + Interest payments

In a principal + interest loan, the principal (original amount borrowed) is divided into equal monthly...

Private company

A private company is a business with private ownership...

Procurement

Procurement is the activity of finding and acquiring goods and services. Its aim is to ensure a...

Product adaptation

Product adaptation is the process of changing a product to meet the needs of customers in...

Promissory note

A promissory note is paper evidence of a debt that a borrower owes a lender. It outlines the amount...

Public company

A public company is a company whose shares trade on a stock exchange. Typically, public companies...

Purchase discounts and allowances

Businesses use discounts and allowances to encourage customers to buy from them or to pay...

Q

Quick assets

Quick assets include cash on hand or current assets like accounts receivable that can be converted to...

R

Ratio analysis

Business owners, managers and financiers use ratio analysis to understand how effectively a business...

Raw material expenses

Raw material expenses refer to the cost of the components that go into a final manufactured product...

Retailer

A retailer is a business that finds, buys and gathers products or...

Retained earnings

Retained earnings are the amount of profit a company has left over... 

Return on common equity ratio

The return on common equity ratio measures how much money common shareholders receive...

Return on investment (ROI)

Return on investment (ROI) is the broadest measure of profitability used by shareholders to gauge how...

Return on shareholders’ equity ratio

The return on shareholders’ equity ratio shows how much money is returned to the owners as a percentage...

Return on total assets ratio

The return on total assets ratio compares a company’s total assets with the amount...

Revenue

Revenue is a dollar figure that indicates how much money a company...

Reward and recognition

Companies use rewards and recognition to motivate employees and demonstrate...

Role descriptions

A role description explains the work an employee is expected to perform. It covers the activities and...

Rules of origin

Rules of origin are laws, regulations and procedures that identify where an imported product originally...

S

Search engine

A search engine is a software program that helps people find the information they are looking for online...

Search engine optimization (SEO)

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the practice of using keywords and other techniques to ensure a...

Seasonal payment

A seasonal payment (seasonal loan) is a loan that is repaid in keeping with a company’s seasonal...

Secured loan

In a secured loan, the lender has a legal claim against a borrower’s assets...

Securitization

Securitization is the process used to create asset-backed securities (ABS). It takes the illiquid assets...

Seed capital

Seed capital is the initial amount of money an entrepreneur uses to start a business. Often, this money...

Segmentation

Segmentation is the process of dividing a company’s target market into groups of potential customers...

Self-employed worker

A self-employed worker is an individual hired by a company to perform a specific...

Selling expenses

Selling expenses are the costs associated with distributing, marketing and...

Semi-variable costs

Semi-variable costs go up when sales and production increase and fall when sales and production...

Senior debt

Senior debts are loans secured by collateral (assets) that must be paid off before any other debts...

Share capital

The term “share capital” refers to the amount of money the owners of a company have invested...

Shareholder

A shareholder is a person or institution that has invested money in a corporation in exchange for...

Shareholder injections/redemptions

A shareholder injection occurs any time a company’s existing shareholders put cash into the business...

Shareholder’s equity

Shareholders’ equity (or business net worth) shows how much the owners of a company have invested...

Shares authorized, issued and outstanding

The term “authorized, issued and outstanding” refers to shares in a company that have been sold...

Short selling

Short selling is a strategy used by stock market traders to make a profit on shares they expect will lose...

Six Sigma

The Six Sigma program was created to help companies continuously improve...

Social entrepreneur

A social entrepreneur is a businessperson whose goal is to create long-term social or environmental...

Social media marketing

Social media marketing is the use of social media platforms such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter...

Sole proprietorship

A sole proprietorship is a business with a single owner who alone is responsible for all liabilities...

Start-up

A start-up is a business in the earliest stages of getting established. Companies may stay in start-up...

Statement of changes in financial position

The statement of changes in financial position (sometimes called a “cash flow statement”) shows a...

Statement of retained earnings

The statement of retained earnings shows the relationship between a company’s...

Statement of work

A statement of work (SoW) is a document that describes ...

Stepped payment

With a stepped-payment loan, a borrower’s monthly payments start low and increase gradually over...

Strategic goals

Strategic goals are the specific financial and non-financial objectives and...

Strategic plan

A strategic plan is a document that summarizes how a company plans to operate and grow over the next...

Strategic planning

Strategic planning is a process that helps a company decide what market opportunities to pursue and...

Strategic scope

Strategic scope refers to the products and services a company ...

Subordinate financing

Subordinated financing (junior debt) is a loan secured by collateral (assets) that are to be paid if a...

Succession planning

Succession planning is a process for identifying, recruiting, training and mentoring...

Supply chain management

Supply chain management refers to the ways a company controls all the steps ...

SWOT analysis

A SWOT analysis breaks down a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT)...

Syndicated loan

A syndicated loan is a substantial loan provided to a large borrower ($1 million or more) by several...

T

Tangible and intangible assets

Assets are everything a company owns. Tangible assets are physical; they include cash, inventory...

Target market

A company’s target market is the set of customers it chooses to serve out of all the possible customers...

Tariffs

A tariff is a fee on goods and services being imported into a country. It is usually imposed and collected...

Taxes payable

Taxes payable are the amount of money a company owes in federal, provincial and municipal...

Technical barriers to trade

A technical barrier to trade (TBT) is any regulation, standard or procedure that could make exporting...

Total quality management (TQM)

Total quality management (TQM) is a management philosophy that asks...

Trade credit insurance

Businesses buy trade credit insurance to protect against the risk of non-payment...

Trade mission

In a trade mission, government officials and businesspeople from one country travel to another to...

Trade secret

Trade secrets include any valuable business information that derives its value from secrecy...

Trademark

A trademark is one or many words, sounds or designs used to distinguish the goods or services...

Trend analysis

A trend analysis examines the factors that drive business success. The analysis is used to make...

U

Unit selling price

The unit selling price is the amount a company charges for a single item of a product or use of a service...

Unsecured loan

In an unsecured loan, a lender provides money to a borrower without any legal claim to the borrower’s...

V

Valuation

Valuation is a process used to establish a company’s worth in dollars...

Values

Values are what a company stands for—the beliefs that drive its organizational behaviour and...

Variable costs

Variable costs rise when sales and production go up and they fall when sales and production volumes go down...

Venture capital

Venture capital is a form of early-stage financing...

Venture Capital Action Plan

The Venture Capital Action Plan (VCAP) was created by the Government of Canada to encourage...

Venture capital fund

A venture capital (VC) fund is a sum of money investors commit for...

Viral marketing

Viral marketing is an online marketing strategy that involves the creation of engaging and entertaining...

Vision and mission statements

A vision statement expresses a company’s main goal for the future...

W

Web analytics

Web analytics allow a company to collect, measure and evaluate data on visitor traffic that comes...

Wholesaler

A wholesaler is a company that sources, buys or stores products and services from multiple suppliers...

Working capital

Working capital is the amount of cash and other assets a business has available after all its current...

Working capital loan

A working capital loan is used to finance the everyday operations of a business such as sales and...

World Customs Organization (WCO)

The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an international group of more than 180 customs...

World Trade Organization (WTO)

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international body dedicated to making trade flow...

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